COVID Research

List of recent accomplishments by ISF Council regarding COVID-19 Pandemic Response

Hallie Prescott

COVID-19 review

Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, Peacock SJ, Prescott HC: Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. JAMA 324(8): 782-793, 2020. PM32648899

Michigan statewide COVID-19 registry (https://www.mi-hms.org/quality-initiatives/mi-covid19-initiative), which provided some of the first data on Long Covid:

Chopra V, Flanders SA, O’Malley M, Malani AN, Prescott HC: Sixty-Day Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19. Ann Intern Med epub ahead of print: TBD, 2020. PM33175566

MI-COVID-19 also provided some of the first data on empiric antibacterial treatment:

Vaughn VM, Gandhi T, Petty LA, Patel PK, Prescott HC, Malani AN, Ratz D, McLaughlin E, Chopra V, Flanders SA: Empiric Antibacterial Therapy and Community-onset Bacterial Co-infection in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Multi-Hospital Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis tbd(tbd): tbd, 2020. PM32820807

-I serve on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Panel for Sepsis, SSC Guideline Panel for COVID, and SSC Research Committee. Below are some recent publications. The next update to the Sepsis Guidelines will also be published soon.

 

Alhazzani W, Evans L, Alshamsi F, Møller MH, Ostermann M, Prescott HC, Arabi YM, Loeb M, Ng Gong M, Fan E, Oczkowski S, Levy MM, Derde L, Dzierba A, Du B, Machado F, Wunsch H, Crowther M, Cecconi M, Koh Y, Burry L, Chertow DS, Szczeklik W, Belley-Cote E, Greco M, Bala M, Zarychanski R, Kesecioglu J, McGeer A, Mermel L, Mammen MJ, Nainan Myatra S, Arrington A, Kleinpell R, Citerio G, Lewis K, Bridges E, Memish ZA, Hammond N, Hayden FG, Alshahrani M, Al Duhailib Z, Martin GS, Kaplan LJ, Coopersmith CM, Antonelli M, Rhodes A: Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines on the Management of Adults With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the ICU: First Update. Crit Care Med 49(3): e219-e234, 2021. PM33555780

 

Coopersmith CM, Antonelli M, Bauer SR, Deutschman CS, Evans LE, Ferrer R, Hellman J, Jog S, Kesecioglu J, Kissoon N, Martin-Loeches I, Nunnally ME, Prescott HC, Rhodes A, Talmor D, Tissieres P, De Backer D: Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Research Priorities for Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Critical Illness. Crit Care Med tbd: tbd, 2021. PM33591008

 

Kenneth Bailie
Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19.

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, Horby P, Lim WS, Emberson JR, Mafham M, Bell JL, Linsell L, Staplin N, Brightling C, Ustianowski A, Elmahi E, Prudon B, Green C, Felton T, Chadwick D, Rege K, Fegan C, Chappell LC, Faust SN, Jaki T, Jeffery K, Montgomery A, Rowan K, Juszczak E, Baillie JK, Haynes R, Landray MJ.N Engl J Med. 2021 Feb 25;384(8):693-704. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2021436. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury.

Russell CD, Millar JE, Baillie JK.Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):473-475. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30317-2. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis.

Mair-Jenkins J, Saavedra-Campos M, Baillie JK, Cleary P, Khaw FM, Lim WS, Makki S, Rooney KD, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Beck CR; Convalescent Plasma Study Group.J Infect Dis. 2015 Jan 1;211(1):80-90. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu396. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19.

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, Horby P, Mafham M, Linsell L, Bell JL, Staplin N, Emberson JR, Wiselka M, Ustianowski A, Elmahi E, Prudon B, Whitehouse T, Felton T, Williams J, Faccenda J, Underwood J, Baillie JK, Chappell LC, Faust SN, Jaki T, Jeffery K, Lim WS, Montgomery A, Rowan K, Tarning J, Watson JA, White NJ, Juszczak E, Haynes R, Landray MJ.N Engl J Med. 2020 Nov 19;383(21):2030-2040. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022926. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Folegatti PM, Ewer KJ, Aley PK, Angus B, Becker S, Belij-Rammerstorfer S, Bellamy D, Bibi S, Bittaye M, Clutterbuck EA, Dold C, Faust SN, Finn A, Flaxman AL, Hallis B, Heath P, Jenkin D, Lazarus R, Makinson R, Minassian AM, Pollock KM, Ramasamy M, Robinson H, Snape M, Tarrant R, Voysey M, Green C, Douglas AD, Hill AVS, Lambe T, Gilbert SC, Pollard AJ; Oxford COVID Vaccine Trial Group.Lancet. 2020 Aug 15;396(10249):467-478. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31604-4. Epub 2020 Jul 20.
Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in COVID-19.

Pairo-Castineira E, Clohisey S, Klaric L, Bretherick AD, Rawlik K, Pasko D, Walker S, Parkinson N, Fourman MH, Russell CD, Furniss J, Richmond A, Gountouna E, Wrobel N, Harrison D, Wang B, Wu Y, Meynert A, Griffiths F, Oosthuyzen W, Kousathanas A, Moutsianas L, Yang Z, Zhai R, Zheng C, Grimes G, Beale R, Millar J, Shih B, Keating S, Zechner M, Haley C, Porteous DJ, Hayward C, Yang J, Knight J, Summers C, Shankar-Hari M, Klenerman P, Turtle L, Ho A, Moore SC, Hinds C, Horby P, Nichol A, Maslove D, Ling L, McAuley D, Montgomery H, Walsh T, Pereira AC, Renieri A; GenOMICC Investigators; ISARIC4C Investigators; COVID-19 Human Genetics Initiative; 23andMe Investigators; BRACOVID Investigators; Gen-COVID Investigators, Shen X, Ponting CP, Fawkes A, Tenesa A, Caulfield M, Scott R, Rowan K, Murphy L, Openshaw PJM, Semple MG, Law A, Vitart V, Wilson JF, Baillie JK.Nature. 2021 Mar;591(7848):92-98. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-03065-y. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Derek Angus

White DB, Angus DC. A proposed lottery system to allocate scarce COVID-19 medications: Promoting fairness and generating knowledge. [Viewpoint] JAMA. 2020; 324(4): 329-330. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.11464. Epub June 24, 2020.

Angus DC, McCreary EK. Efficacy of remdesivir in COVID-19. JAMA. 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16337.

Angus, DC, et.al.  Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial  Journal of the American Medical Association; 2020 (online)

The REMAP-CAP Investigators.  Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19.  New England Journal of Medicine.  2021.  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2100433

The UPMC REMAP-COVID Group, on behalf of the REMAP-CAP Investigators., Huang, D.T., McVerry, B.J. et al. Implementation of the Randomized Embedded Multifactorial Adaptive Platform for COVID-19 (REMAP-COVID) trial in a US health system—lessons learned and recommendations. Trials 22, 100 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04997-6

J Ryan Bariola, Erin K McCreary, Richard J Wadas, Kevin E Kip, Oscar C Marroquin, Tami Minnier, Stephen Koscumb, Kevin Collins, Mark Schmidhofer, Judith A Shovel, Mary Kay Wisniewski, Colleen Sullivan, Donald M Yealy, David A Nace, David T Huang, Ghady Haidar, Tina Khadem, Kelsey Linstrum, Christopher W Seymour, Stephanie K Montgomery, Derek C Angus, Graham M Snyder.  Impact of monoclonal antibody treatment on hospitalization and mortality among non-hospitalized adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection.  medRxiv 2021.03.25.21254322; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.25.21254322

Angus DC. Optimizing the Trade-off Between Learning and Doing in a Pandemic. JAMA. 2020 May 19;323(19):1895-1896. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4984. PMID: 32227198.

Angus DC, Berry S, Lewis RJ, Al-Beidh F, Arabi Y, van Bentum-Puijk W, Bhimani Z, Bonten M, Broglio K, Brunkhorst F, Cheng AC, Chiche JD, De Jong M, Detry M, Goossens H, Gordon A, Green C, Higgins AM, Hullegie SJ, Kruger P, Lamontagne F, Litton E, Marshall J, McGlothlin A, McGuinness S, Mouncey P, Murthy S, Nichol A, O’Neill GK, Parke R, Parker J, Rohde G, Rowan K, Turner A, Young P, Derde L, McArthur C, Webb SA. The REMAP-CAP (Randomized Embedded Multifactorial Adaptive Platform for Community-acquired Pneumonia) Study. Rationale and Design. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2020 Jul;17(7):879-891. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202003-192SD. PMID: 32267771; PMCID: PMC7328186.

WHO Rapid Evidence Appraisal for COVID-19 Therapies (REACT) Working Group, Sterne JAC, Murthy S, Diaz JV, Slutsky AS, Villar J, Angus DC, Annane D, Azevedo LCP, Berwanger O, Cavalcanti AB, Dequin PF, Du B, Emberson J, Fisher D, Giraudeau B, Gordon AC, Granholm A, Green C, Haynes R, Heming N, Higgins JPT, Horby P, Jüni P, Landray MJ, Le Gouge A, Leclerc M, Lim WS, Machado FR, McArthur C, Meziani F, Møller MH, Perner A, Petersen MW, Savovic J, Tomazini B, Veiga VC, Webb S, Marshall JC. Association Between Administration of Systemic Corticosteroids and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: A Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2020 Oct 6;324(13):1330-1341. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.17023. PMID: 32876694; PMCID: PMC7489434.

Angus DC, Gordon AC, Bauchner H. Emerging Lessons From COVID-19 for the US Clinical Research Enterprise. JAMA. 2021 Mar 23;325(12):1159-1161. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.3284. PMID: 33635309.

Arabi YM, Azoulay E, Al-Dorzi HM, Phua J, Salluh J, Binnie A, Hodgson C, Angus DC, Cecconi M, Du B, Fowler R, Gomersall CD, Horby P, Juffermans NP, Kesecioglu J, Kleinpell RM, Machado FR, Martin GS, Meyfroidt G, Rhodes A, Rowan K, Timsit JF, Vincent JL, Citerio G. How the COVID-19 pandemic will change the future of critical care. Intensive Care Med. 2021 Mar;47(3):282-291. doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06352-y. Epub 2021 Feb 22. PMID: 33616696; PMCID: PMC7898492.

Therapeutic Anticoagulation in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19 – Preliminary Report.  The REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, ATTACC Investigators, Ryan Zarychanski; MedRxiv 2021.03.10.21252749; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.10.21252749

 Manu Shankar-Hari

Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in COVID-19.

Pairo-Castineira E, Clohisey S, Klaric L, Bretherick AD, Rawlik K, Pasko D, Walker S, Parkinson N, Fourman MH, Russell CD, Furniss J, Richmond A, Gountouna E, Wrobel N, Harrison D, Wang B, Wu Y, Meynert A, Griffiths F, Oosthuyzen W, Kousathanas A, Moutsianas L, Yang Z, Zhai R, Zheng C, Grimes G, Beale R, Millar J, Shih B, Keating S, Zechner M, Haley C, Porteous DJ, Hayward C, Yang J, Knight J, Summers C, Shankar-Hari M, Klenerman P, Turtle L, Ho A, Moore SC, Hinds C, Horby P, Nichol A, Maslove D, Ling L, McAuley D, Montgomery H, Walsh T, Pereira AC, Renieri A; GenOMICC Investigators; ISARIC4C Investigators; COVID-19 Human Genetics Initiative; 23andMe Investigators; BRACOVID Investigators; Gen-COVID Investigators, Shen X, Ponting CP, Fawkes A, Tenesa A, Caulfield M, Scott R, Rowan K, Murphy L, Openshaw PJM, Semple MG, Law A, Vitart V, Wilson JF, Baillie JK.

Nature. 2021 Mar;591(7848):92-98. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-03065-y. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

A dynamic COVID-19 immune signature includes associations with poor prognosis.

Laing AG, Lorenc A, Del Molino Del Barrio I, Das A, Fish M, Monin L, Muñoz-Ruiz M, McKenzie DR, Hayday TS, Francos-Quijorna I, Kamdar S, Joseph M, Davies D, Davis R, Jennings A, Zlatareva I, Vantourout P, Wu Y, Sofra V, Cano F, Greco M, Theodoridis E, Freedman JD, Gee S, Chan JNE, Ryan S, Bugallo-Blanco E, Peterson P, Kisand K, Haljasmägi L, Chadli L, Moingeon P, Martinez L, Merrick B, Bisnauthsing K, Brooks K, Ibrahim MAA, Mason J, Lopez Gomez F, Babalola K, Abdul-Jawad S, Cason J, Mant C, Seow J, Graham C, Doores KJ, Di Rosa F, Edgeworth J, Shankar-Hari M, Hayday AC.Nat Med. 2020 Oct;26(10):1623-1635. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1038-6. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Peripheral immunophenotypes in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Carter MJ, Fish M, Jennings A, Doores KJ, Wellman P, Seow J, Acors S, Graham C, Timms E, Kenny J, Neil S, Malim MH, Tibby SM, Shankar-Hari M.

Nat Med. 2020 Nov;26(11):1701-1707. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1054-6. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Symptoms of burnout in intensive care unit specialists facing the COVID-19 outbreak.

Azoulay E, De Waele J, Ferrer R, Staudinger T, Borkowska M, Povoa P, Iliopoulou K, Artigas A, Schaller SJ, Hari MS, Pellegrini M, Darmon M, Kesecioglu J, Cecconi M; ESICM.

Ann Intensive Care. 2020 Aug 8;10(1):110. doi: 10.1186/s13613-020-00722-3.

Longitudinal observation and decline of neutralizing antibody responses in the three months following SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.

Seow J, Graham C, Merrick B, Acors S, Pickering S, Steel KJA, Hemmings O, O’Byrne A, Kouphou N, Galao RP, Betancor G, Wilson HD, Signell AW, Winstone H, Kerridge C, Huettner I, Jimenez-Guardeño JM, Lista MJ, Temperton N, Snell LB, Bisnauthsing K, Moore A, Green A, Martinez L, Stokes B, Honey J, Izquierdo-Barras A, Arbane G, Patel A, Tan MKI, O’Connell L, O’Hara G, MacMahon E, Douthwaite S, Nebbia G, Batra R, Martinez-Nunez R, Shankar-Hari M, Edgeworth JD, Neil SJD, Malim MH, Doores KJ.

Nat Microbiol. 2020 Dec;5(12):1598-1607. doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-00813-8. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally-Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An Overview.

Carter MJ, Shankar-Hari M, Tibby SM.

Intensive Care Med. 2021 Jan;47(1):90-93. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06273-2. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

International variation in the management of severe COVID-19 patients.

Azoulay E, de Waele J, Ferrer R, Staudinger T, Borkowska M, Povoa P, Iliopoulou K, Artigas A, Schaller SJ, Shankar-Hari M, Pellegrini M, Darmon M, Kesecioglu J, Cecconi M.

Crit Care. 2020 Aug 5;24(1):486. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03194-w.

 

 Mervyn Singer

Pathophysiology of sepsis.

Arina P, Singer M.Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2021 Apr 1;34(2):77-84. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000963.

Effect of dexamethasone in patients with ARDS and COVID-19 – prospective, multi-centre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial (REMED trial): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Maláska J, Stašek J, Duška F, Balík M, Máca J, Hruda J, Vymazal T, Klementová O, Zatloukal J, Gabrhelík T, Novotný P, Demlová R, Kubátová J, Vinklerová J, Svobodník A, Kratochvíl M, Klučka J, Gál R, Singer M; REMED Study Group.

Trials. 2021 Mar 1;22(1):172. doi: 10.1186/s13063-021-05116-9.

Lessons and risks of medical device deployment in a global pandemic.

Shipley RJ, Brealey D, Haniffa R, Elwell C, Baker T, Lomas DA, Singer M.Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Feb 3;9(4):e395-6. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00028-0. Online ahead of print.

 Fernando Zampieri

Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19.

Cavalcanti AB, Zampieri FG, Rosa RG, Azevedo LCP, Veiga VC, Avezum A, Damiani LP, Marcadenti A, Kawano-Dourado L, Lisboa T, Junqueira DLM, de Barros E Silva PGM, Tramujas L, Abreu-Silva EO, Laranjeira LN, Soares AT, Echenique LS, Pereira AJ, Freitas FGR, Gebara OCE, Dantas VCS, Furtado RHM, Milan EP, Golin NA, Cardoso FF, Maia IS, Hoffmann Filho CR, Kormann APM, Amazonas RB, Bocchi de Oliveira MF, Serpa-Neto A, Falavigna M, Lopes RD, Machado FR, Berwanger O; Coalition Covid-19 Brazil I Investigators.N Engl J Med. 2020 Nov 19;383(21):2041-2052. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2019014. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Effect of Dexamethasone on Days Alive and Ventilator-Free in Patients With Moderate or Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and COVID-19: The CoDEX Randomized Clinical Trial.

Tomazini BM, Maia IS, Cavalcanti AB, Berwanger O, Rosa RG, Veiga VC, Avezum A, Lopes RD, Bueno FR, Silva MVAO, Baldassare FP, Costa ELV, Moura RAB, Honorato MO, Costa AN, Damiani LP, Lisboa T, Kawano-Dourado L, Zampieri FG, Olivato GB, Righy C, Amendola CP, Roepke RML, Freitas DHM, Forte DN, Freitas FGR, Fernandes CCF, Melro LMG, Junior GFS, Morais DC, Zung S, Machado FR, Azevedo LCP; COALITION COVID-19 Brazil III Investigators.JAMA. 2020 Oct 6;324(13):1307-1316. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.17021.

Azithromycin in addition to standard of care versus standard of care alone in the treatment of patients admitted to the hospital with severe COVID-19 in Brazil (COALITION II): a randomised clinical trial.

Furtado RHM, Berwanger O, Fonseca HA, Corrêa TD, Ferraz LR, Lapa MG, Zampieri FG, Veiga VC, Azevedo LCP, Rosa RG, Lopes RD, Avezum A, Manoel ALO, Piza FMT, Martins PA, Lisboa TC, Pereira AJ, Olivato GB, Dantas VCS, Milan EP, Gebara OCE, Amazonas RB, Oliveira MB, Soares RVP, Moia DDF, Piano LPA, Castilho K, Momesso RGRAP, Schettino GPP, Rizzo LV, Neto AS, Machado FR, Cavalcanti AB; COALITION COVID-19 Brazil II Investigators.Lancet. 2020 Oct 3;396(10256):959-967. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31862-6. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

A manifesto for the future of ICU trials.

Goligher EC, Zampieri F, Calfee CS, Seymour CW.Crit Care. 2020 Dec 9;24(1):686. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03393-5. 

Intensive care accessibility and outcomes in pandemics.

Zampieri FG, Skrifvars MB, Anstey

J.Intensive Care Med. 2020 Nov;46(11):2064-2066. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06264-3. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Effect of tocilizumab on clinical outcomes at 15 days in patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019: randomised controlled trial.

Veiga VC, Prats JAGG, Farias DLC, Rosa RG, Dourado LK, Zampieri FG, Machado FR, Lopes RD, Berwanger O, Azevedo LCP, Avezum Á, Lisboa TC, Rojas SSO, Coelho JC, Leite RT, Carvalho JC, Andrade LEC, Sandes AF, Pintão MCT, Castro CG Jr, Santos SV, de Almeida TML, Costa AN, Gebara OCE, de Freitas FGR, Pacheco ES, Machado DJB, Martin J, Conceição FG, Siqueira SRR, Damiani LP, Ishihara LM, Schneider D, de Souza D, Cavalcanti AB, Scheinberg P; Coalition covid-19 Brazil VI Investigators.

BMJ. 2021 Jan 20;372:n84. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n84.

Christopher Seymour

Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19: The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial.

Angus DC, Derde L, Al-Beidh F, Annane D, Arabi Y, Beane A, van Bentum-Puijk W, Berry L, Bhimani Z, Bonten M, Bradbury C, Brunkhorst F, Buxton M, Buzgau A, Cheng AC, de Jong M, Detry M, Estcourt L, Fitzgerald M, Goossens H, Green C, Haniffa R, Higgins AM, Horvat C, Hullegie SJ, Kruger P, Lamontagne F, Lawler PR, Linstrum K, Litton E, Lorenzi E, Marshall J, McAuley D, McGlothin A, McGuinness S, McVerry B, Montgomery S, Mouncey P, Murthy S, Nichol A, Parke R, Parker J, Rowan K, Sanil A, Santos M, Saunders C, Seymour C, etal

COVID-19 Infection-Preventing Clinical Deterioration.

Seymour CW, Bauchner H, Golub RM.JAMA. 2020 Dec 8;324(22):2300. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.21720.

A manifesto for the future of ICU trials.

Goligher EC, Zampieri F, Calfee CS, Seymour CW.Crit Care. 2020 Dec 9;24(1):686. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03393-5.

Sensible Medicine-Balancing Intervention and Inaction During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Seymour CW, McCreary EK, Stegenga J.JAMA. 2020 Oct 15. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.20271. Online ahead of print.

 Adrienne Randolph

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents.

Feldstein LR, Rose EB, Horwitz SM, Collins JP, Newhams MM, Son MBF, Newburger JW, Kleinman LC, Heidemann SM, Martin AA, Singh AR, Li S, Tarquinio KM, Jaggi P, Oster ME, Zackai SP, Gillen J, Ratner AJ, Walsh RF, Fitzgerald JC, Keenaghan MA, Alharash H, Doymaz S, Clouser KN, Giuliano JS Jr, Gupta A, Parker RM, Maddux AB, Havalad V, Ramsingh S, Bukulmez H, Bradford TT, Smith LS, Tenforde MW, Carroll CL, Riggs BJ, Gertz SJ, Daube A, Lansell A, Coronado Munoz A, Hobbs CV, Marohn KL, Halasa NB, Patel MM, Randolph AG; Overcoming COVID-19 Investigators; CDC COVID-19 Response Team.N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 23;383(4):334-346. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2021680. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Inclusion of Children in Clinical Trials of Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Hwang TJ, Randolph AG, Bourgeois FT.JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Sep 1;174(9):825-826. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1888. 

 Thierry Calandra

An Early Warning Score to predict ICU admission in COVID-19 positive patients.

Meylan S, Akrour R, Regina J, Bart PA, Dami F, Calandra T.J Infect. 2020 Nov;81(5):816-846. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.047. Epub 2020 May 28.